Sunday, November 28, 2010

Kidney failure- the causes and cost

Kidney failure- the causes

Our Kidney can failure to functional normally when it's comes from an acute situation or from chronic problems.

In acute renal failure, kidney function is lost rapidly and can occur from a variety of insults to the body.

The list of causes is often categorized based on where the injury has occurred.

1.   Prerenal causes   - comes from the decreased blood supply to the kidney. 
                                      Examples of prerenal causes of kidney failure are:
        • low blood volume - due to blood loss (hypovolemia);
        •  loss of body fluid or dehydration process likes sweating, fever etc.
        • less of fluids;drinking water in small quantities.
        • medication methods likes diuretics ("water pills") may cause excessive water loss; and
        • abnormal blood flow to and from the kidney due to obstruction of the renal artery or vein.

2. Renal causes  - damage directly to the kidney itself include:

3.Post renal causes  -   factors that affect outflow of the urine:
      • Obstruction of the bladder or the ureters can cause back pressure because the kidneys continue to produce urine, but the obstruction acts like a dam, and urine backs up into the kidneys. When the pressure increases high enough, the kidneys are damaged and shut down.
      • Prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer may block the urethra and prevents the bladder from emptying.
      • Tumors in the abdomen that surround and obstruct the ureters.
      • Kidney stones. Usually,  affect only one kidney and do not cause kidney failure. However, if there is only one kidney present, a kidney stone may cause the lone kidney to fail.

4. Chronic renal failure develops over months and years which are related to:
          Less common causes of chronic renal failure include:

How much Dialysis cost in Malaysia

The CER (cost effectiveness ratios ) by MOH (Ministry of Health, Malaysia)of : -
  • centre haemodialysis was RM 21,620/life year saved, 
  • home haemodialysis was RM 23375/life year saved
  • CAPD ( continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) was RM 30469 /life year saved
  • IPD (intermittent peritoneal dialysis ) was RM 36016 / life year saved. 


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